NCIE B&R NSO 510 notes

Onder zijn de volgende onderwerpen uitgewerkt:

  1. NSO 510 How NetApp replication technology works


  1. NSO 510 How NetApp replication technology works

Algemeen geldt voor NetApp Snapshot technologie het volgende:

De Snapshot technologie is de Core technologie van de NetApp data protection solutions, en een fundamenteel onderdeel van het WAFL file systeem.

Snapshots worden gebruikt voor backup en recovery.

Products that rely on SnapShot Core Technology are (the SnapSuite): SnapRestore (: Instant volume recovery, or large individual files), SnapMirror, SnapVault, SnapManager, SnapDrive

1.1 Explain how Snapshot replication works.

a NetApp Snapshot copy is a read-only image used to provide instant restores.

  • A Snapshot is a read-only space-efficient, point-in-time image of the data in a volume or aggregate.
  • It is a picture of the file system and does not contain the actual content of data files.

SnapShot is the preferred strategy for backup and recovery when:

  1. file systems or RAW partitions consist of a single LUN
  2. offloading the majority of backup overhead from the host system is required

1.2 Explain how SnapMirror replication technology works.

Er is sprake van Asynchronous en synchronous remote replication, waarbij wordt gerepliceerd over  goedkopere IP netwerken of de duurdere FC netwerken .

Bij SnapMirror is er sprake van van QSM en VSM relaties

  • QSM relationship (Qtree SnapMirror relationship)
  • VSM relationship (Volume SnapMirror relationship)

Volume SnapMirror; Transfers the data in a deduplicated state without needing to expand the data for data transfer.

Two requirements for SnapMirror network compression:

  1. You must add the compression=enable option to an entry in the snapmirror.conf file.
  2. You must configure a SnapMirror Multiplex Connection Name.

Weet de verschillen tussen SnapMirror & SnapVault;

Snapmirror is used for Disaster Recovery and SnapVault for backup.  For SnapVault backup the qtree is the basic unit. Setting up SnapMirror replicating a volume must create a restricted volume to use as the SnapMirror.

Multi path support voor SnapMirror;

  • Multiplex,
  • Failover

1.3 Explain how SnapVault replication technology works.

SpapVault is een disk-based online archiving of backup oplossing waarbij je hourly, weekly and monthly versions van kan bewaren.

SnapVault is a disk-based backup solution that:

  1. enables restoration of data from SV secondary storage system, with minimum downtime and better reliability than tape-based backup and restore
  2. requires both NetApp and secondairy storage systems
  3. enables data stored on multiple NetApp storage systems to be backed up to a central scondairy system as read-only SnapShot copies

SnapVault allows data to be backed up via SnapShot and transferred on a scheduled basis to a destination NearStore appliance.

Two technologies that serve as the basis for SnapVault based backups:

  • QSM
  • and Snapshot

When a volume with qtrees is backed up using SnapVault from primary to secondary:

  1. Qtrees on Primary are stored as directories on Secondary
  2. Restores of original volume from Secondary to Primary are done as a qtree

10000 and 10566 TCP ports should be open to enable SnapVault backups and restores between Primary and Secondary with NDMP-based backup management.

Benefit of deploying SnapVault for backups: it performs incremental forever backups.

LREP is used for SnapVault (open systems and netapp primary) baselining.

Statement about SnapVault technology:

  • SnapVault replicates Snapshot copies from primary to secondary storage on a scheduled basis and can be combined with deduplication to improve storage efficiency on the secondary.

Statements about Qtree SnapVault relationship (snapvault start)

  1. The secondary storage system request an initial baseline transfer from the primary volume
  2. The primary storage system creates a baseline snapshot on the volume containing the qtree that needs to be backed up to the secondary
  3. Once the baseline transfer is completed to the secondary qtree, the secondary storage system creates a baseline SnapShot of the volume containing the replicated qtree
  4. Baseline SnapShot copies created on Primary and Secondary are critical for processing incremental updates

Two events occur using the SnapVault start command when creating a backup relationship between a primary and secondary storage sytem:

  1. The secondary storage system request an initial baseline transfer of the qtree or volume data from the primary volume
  2. The primary storage system creates a Snapshot copy of the volume indentified in the snapvault start command

Three factors influence secondary storage capacity planning for SnapVault- based backup and restore solutions:

  1. Size of the dataset
  2. Rate of the change of the dataset
  3. Retention policy for Snapshot

About Open Systems SnapVault (OSSV)

It is NOT important to know the costumers current backup application for Open Systems SnapVault (OSSV) deployments.

Three platforms that support OSSV support backup and restore:

  1. IBM AIX
  2. HP HP-UX
  3. Linux

OSSV installation need 3 components:

  1. primary- and,
  2. secondary system and,
  3. OSSV agent installed on the primairy system

It does not require a new baseline transfer when a OSSV relationship needs to be resynchronized after the relationship was broken.

1.4 Explain how SnapManager products work.

Host software for backup & restore of Exchange (incl. Single Mailbox Restore option), SQL Server, Oracle, SAP, SharePoint Server.

Two reasons why SnapManager for Exchange interacts with SnapDrive:

  1. to facilitate SnapMirror replication updates
  2. to communicate with the storage controller

SnapManager for Exchange interacts with SnapDrive (to facilitate SnapMirror replication updates and to communicate with the storage controller)

1.5 Explain how the SnapProtect management solution works.

De CommServe Storage Manager is de interface van waaruit de SnapProtect oplossing  kan worden gemanaged.

Via de volgende link is een Overview van CommServe Storage Manager te vinden: Overview – CommServe Storage Manager

Lees ook de volgende documentatie:

The technology that SnapProtect use to index LUN contents:

  • LUN Clone

SnapProtect and DFM software are installed on two different Windows 2008 R2 servers/hosts (NO cluster servers). If the DFM host fails the following parts of the SnapProtect solution are no longer working:

  • disk-to-disk backup
  • restores of mirrored data using the SnapProtect Console/User Interface
  • local SnapShot copies using the SnapProtect Console/User Interface

In SnapProtect to confirm that a backup completed successfully:

  • Right-click the name of the storage Policy,
  • Select All tasks,
  • Select Run Data Verification,
  • Select Run Immediately

1.6 Explain how high-availability configurations work.

SnapMirror Interlock with SnapVault 
When using SnapMirror in combination with SnapVault, it is important to understand their relationships with Snapshot. Because SnapMirror and SnapVault both use the same Snapshot copies, they cannot run simultaneously. Schedules must be managed to accommodate the interlock that keeps SnapMirror and SnapVault from stepping on each other.

Using SnapMirror to Create DR for SnapVault
SnapVault does not currently have the ability to create a writable destination on the secondary system. However, you can use SnapMirror to convert the SnapVault destination to a SnapMirror destination, making it a typical SnapMirror destination that can be quiesced and broken.

1.7 Explain how MetroCluster configurations work.

Lees de volgende informatie Over het Metrocluster

By default in a MetroCluster in a forced takeover the following occurs:

  1. Volumes receive a new file system ID (FSID)
  2. SyncMirrored Aggregates Relationships are broken
  3. Existing NFS mounts to the failed controller become stale.

The PLEX term is used for 2 mirrored aggregates (Syncmirror)

MetroCluster system requires licenses:
1. Cluster
2. Cluster_remote
3. Syncmirror_local


2.1 Assess customer data-protection requirements.

The following actions take place during a data-protection assessment:

  1. determine if a POC (proof of concept) phase is needed.
  2. analyze customer data protection backup and disaster recovery goals compared to NetApp data protection technology.
  3. gather information about the customer’s existing infrastructure.
  4. visit executive Briefing Center so experts can provide education to customer, concerning NetApp offerings

Three objectives of a backup and recovery customer assessment are:

  1. To reduce cost and improve performance through innovations made possible by NetApp technology
  2. To perform a through in-depth evaluation of existing IT infrastructure (i.e. backup and recovery) operational models
  3. To provide high-level recommendations for deploying NetApp technologies, solutions and techniques to increase operational effectiveness

 2.2 Given a set of requirements, determine the most appropriate data-protection solutions.

During the discovery phase for SnapVault-based backup recovery solution implementation:

  1. Review existing infrastructure and backup applications in use
  2. Establish retention periods and backup schedules for each dataset
  3. Record change rates for each dataset requiring backups (per day or hour)
  4. Record existing network infrastructure and available bandwidth for backups
  5. Acquire RPO granularity and RTO for each dataset for local and remote backups
  6. Indentify datasets for backup

When a SOW-based (Statement Off Work) project is ready, the final step to close out is; have the customer sign the acceptance form

2.3 Recommend NetApp solutions that maximize disaster recover RPO and RTO.

You need the following pieces of information about the customer site to build a Backup and Recovery plan:

  1. RPO
  2. RTO
  3. amount of data

RPO = Recovery Point Objective (herstelpunt inclusief dataverlies)

Three descriptions of RPO:

  1. the time between the last available backup and the time a disruption could potentially occur.
  2. a critical requirement for planning backup and recovery environments.
  3. a point in time which data must be restored in order to meet Service Level Agreement.

RTO = Recovery Time Objective (duur hersteltijd)

2.4 Use sizing guidelines to determine sizing requirements for secondary or tertiary storage.

When sizing high-availability workloads in case a failover occurs , you should plan for failover performance on the following way:

  • size high-availability workloads so performance meets the customer’s expectations when there is a failover and only one controller is operational

Monitoring space capacity with NetApp Management Console or with NetApp System Management tool (OnCommand)

When used the NetApp Unified Sizer to determine disk space requirements of the  RAW or Physical disk space compared to the effective or usable disk space show in System Management the Disks for physical space compared to effective space.

Statement about the NetApp Unified Application Sizer tool:

  1. The output files of application-specific sizing tools are uploaded into the unified tool to calculate the total sizing requirement.

2.5 Use the Interoperability Matrix Tool (IMT) to determine supportability of an implementation.

IMT Interoperability Matrix Tool contain:

  • supported NetApp,
  • and third-party certified NetApp configurations.

2.6 Use the NetApp System Manager to determine aggregate capacities.

NetApp System Manager display aggregate capacity information in the following form:

  • graphical and textual

NetApp System Manager complements SnapDrive for Windows by enabling administrators to set up a storage system, configure network access and protocols, and then use SnapDrive to provision storage to a Windows host and create host-consistent Snapshot copies of data.

2.7 Plan and implement application-specific data protection.

Two tasks to be completed as part of the post-implementation phase of a project:

  1. update the Build Guide
  2. set aside time to conduct training and transfer of information

2.8 Plan and implement virtualization-specific data protection.

About the NEARSTORE VTL: the Virtual Tape Library is hardware technology positioned in the NetApp backup and recovery portfolio.

When deploying a NearStore VTL into a NetBackup envirement, it is important to know the version of NetBackup being utilized. Reason:

  • it determines whether a mapping is required.

The maximum number of simultaneously active virtual tape drives supported on a NearStore VTL 700 running VLLOS 5.2.x is 64

Export or clone function directly creates physical tape using VTL

NearStorre VTL feature allows a backup to remain on disks of the NetaStore VTL even after the virtual tape has been ejected by the backup application:

  1. Shadow tapes

When setting up the hardware for the NearStore VTL follow the VTL installation and Setup instructions.

A NearStore VTL advantage when deployed with storage devices running NDMP is that a separate virtual tape drive can be configured for each device running NDMP

Two statements are true about the use of NetBackup Shared Service Option (SSO) with a NearStore VTL:  1. It requires a license at additional cost. 2. It is not recommended, because a virtual tape drive can be assigned to each host.

NearStore VTL provides a masking function to control Host access to virtual devices.

Tools to test and demonstrate the performance of a NearStore VTL:

  • dd
  • HPTapePerf

# appliance version (display revision level of the VLTOS)

VTLOS version: vtlos show version?

diag show (obtain diagnostic information)

appliance version (NearStore VTL CLI command used to display the revision level of the VTLOS operating system)



3.1 Configure Snapshot software.

# snap sched –x (schedule incremental backups)

snap create and = snap sched (CLI commands used to create a volume Snapshot copy either manually or automatically)

3.2 Configure SnapMirror software.

# snapmirror initialize –S filer1:vol1 filer2:vol1 (Configure a volume SnapMirror relationship)

Options snapmirror.access (specify destination allowed to replicate (pull) data from source)

Options snapmirror.access host=<dest-filer>

3.3 Configure SnapVault software.

Secondary # snapvault snap sched –x sec_vol sv_hourly 11@mon-fri@7-18 (-x parameter causes SnapVault to ensure that all qtrees on the Secondairy are updated from their associated primairy system qtrees before the snapshot is taken)

# snapvault snap sched –x vol1 sv_hourly5@mon-sun@10 (configure SnapVault transfer schedule)

# snapvault start –r (resynchronizes SnapVault without a new level zero baseline)

SnapVault options Primary:

SnapVault options Secondairy:

3.4 Configure backup and restore operations using Protection Manager.

Two requirements for creating a Protection Policy within Protection Manager:

  1. Retention time of Snapshot copies
  2. The backup/data transfer schedule

NetApp Protection Manager and Syncsort Backup Express are using NDMP in OSSV based backup environments.

3.5 Configure backup and restore operations using SnapProtect.

When vaulting from a mirror copy in SnapProtect, the required setting for the option snapvault.snapshot_for_dr_backup is : named_snapshot_only

 3.6 Configure Protection Manager resource pools.

3.7 Configure Provisioning Manager provisioning policies.

3.8 Configure FAS and V-Series for storage high-availability and resiliency.


4.1 Verify backup operations using command line, Protection Manager, and SnapProtect.

SnapVault logs are located in: /etc/logs/snapmirror

SnapMirror logs are located in: /etc/logs/snapmirror

Data ONTAP command for showing all tape information:

# sysconfig -t

Data ONTAP command for displaying tape statistics:

# storage stats tape (tapename)

Svconfigurator.exe (Tool used to perform basic config of OSSV client agent on Windows 2003 system)

Svconfigpackager (OSSV package to perform unattended installation)

Svinstallcheck (OSSV verify on the primary system services running properly and installation successful)

# vol options /vol/flexvol1 nosnapdir on (disable client access to snapshots on volume /vol/flexvol1)

# snap list –q (view SnapVault snapshots)

# snap list (to monitor SnapVault snapshot creation and deletion)

# snapvault status -l (displays detailed information on the most recent SnapVault transfer and SnapShot copy activity.

# snap restore –t file –r /vol/flexvol0/home/rc (destination plus filename)   /vol/flexvol0/etc/rc (restore file ../etc/rc to /vol/flexvol0/home)

# storage show disk –p (check disks are connected and have dual paths)

4.2 Use SnapManager, Protection Manager, and SnapProtect applications to manage data protection.

OnCommand Core Package, which includes the OnCommand Console, DataFabric Manager server and the Operations Manager Console:

NetApp storage Management solution to help size primary and secondairy aggregates to establish adequate secondairy storage space for their enterprise-wide disaster recovery plan.

NetApp Management Console: can be used to Monitor space.

When utilizing the NetApp Management Console to Configure Protection Manager, the following two methods can be used to license SnapVault:

  1. from the Protection manager, navigate to the Hosts window, select the storage system, and click Diagnose
  2. from the Protection manager, navigate to the Hosts window, select the storage system, and click Edit, add the SnapVault License code, and click Add

ComeServeDR (SnapProtect automatic storage policy protects the SnapProtect index database)?

SnapManager (for Exchange, SQL, VMWARE enz)

Mandatory steps in the process of mounting the contents of a backup before performing a restore using the vSphere client:

  1. Click the Share button to create a shared resource
  2. Navigate to the NetApp System Management and create a share for the secondary volume

The reasons for mounting the contents of a backup to a VMware ESX server:

  1. to verify the contents using the vSphere Client
  2. to use the vSphere Client to restore lost datastores

SnapManager for Exchange interacts with SnapDrive for 2 reasons:

  1. To facilitate SnapMirror replication updates
  2. To communicate with the storage controller

The SnapDrive for Windows software supplies work with the Microsoft Volume Shadow Copy Service.

4.3 Monitor primary and secondary storage capacities.

With the nearstore_option license more concurrent SnapVault transfer streams are possible. Without the nearstore_option license the total SnapVault transfer streams for the FAS3020/3050 are dependent on the type of disk used:

  • 16 streams for FC drives
  • 8  streams for SATA drives

Two tools to estimate the size of each incremental update when you want to enable SnapMirror to protect data from a single site failure:

  1. Snap delta
  2. OnCommand System Manager.

# snap delta [ -A | -V ] [ vol_name [ snap ] [ snap ] ]

Tool OSSV to determine the amount of space required on the primairy system for transfer: svestimator

About deduplication:

A-SIS optimization can be configured at the volume level only A-SIS deduplication? A-SIS sessions on a NetApp controller; 8 maximum number of concurrent sessions

Three possible options for implementation of deduplication:

  1. Manual
  2. Automatic
  3. Scheduled

Quiesce is used to describe pausing or altering the state of running processes on a computer, particularly those that might modify information stored on disk during abackup, in order to guarantee a consistent and usable backup. This generally requires flushing any outstanding writes, see buffering.

4.4 Use Protection Manager to locate and protect unprotected volumes, qtrees, or open systems directories.

To view the aggregates assigned to a resource pool view the Space Breakout view.

The Space breakout tab lists the aggregates assigned to the resource pool that is selected in the Resource Pools window. When you select an aggregate, all the datasets in the aggregate and the percentage and amount of currently used space for each dataset are displayed.


Zie ook de betreffende Best Practices Guides.

5.1 Plan SnapMirror, SnapVault, and Open Systems SnapVault implementations that maximize performance.

5.2 Plan SnapVault and Open Systems SnapVault implementations that maximize performance.

Two factors that can impact the system’s ability to reach the maximum number of simultaneous replication operations:

  1. Your storage system such as CPU usage, memory, disk bandwidth, or network bandwidth, have been taken from SnapMirror or SnapVault operations by heavy user operations.
  2. Your storage system is configured for high availability and is now in failover mode and cannot process more than the maximum number of simultaneous replication operations for that storage system.

Information needed to determine the throughput required for backups:

  1. Amount of data
  2. Duration of backup window
  3. Type of target media

Use the following tool when want to seed a qtree SnapMirror relationship without sending the initial baseline over the WAN: LREP

Use the following tool when want to seed a Volume SnapMirror relationship without sending the initial baseline over the WAN: SnapMirror to Tape

In Data ONTAP 7.3.2 and newer, the maximum Volume SnapMirror window size limit for single-path connections is: 7MB and multipath connections is 14MB.

 # snapvault modify (to alter the characteristics of a SnapVault relationship, including the transfer speed, the number of re-tries, and the primairy and secondairy paths.

Tool used to test and demonstrate performance of a NearStore VTL:

  • Dd
  • HPTapePerf